Standard Steel Pipe 1 lbf(Pound force) = 4.45 N = 0.45 kp Extra Strong Steel Pipe Note that the effective column length depends on the column configuration.

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Multiply your answer by 2. Using the example in Step 1: 90,000 x 2 = 180,000. Multiply the pipe's outside diameter by the pipe's safety factor. The manufacturer provides data

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